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Hyperscript

"Semiconductor Technology"

© H. Föll

Matrix of Modules

Hyperscripts of AMAT:
General Information

Index
This matrix contains all modules (i.e. HTML files) of the Hyperscript. Incomplete modules will be finished and more modules will be added in due time. There are three main levels for organizing the modules:
Basics
Contains some reference information and on occasion longer texts on background knowledge that you should be familiar with.
Learning (main part)
Contains everything that you should know after taking the course.
Advanced
Supplies knowledge beyond the scope of the course that is of some interest. Includes, on occasion, also elaborations about historical, strange or funny stuff relating to topics of the course.
The main part ("learning") is further subdivided in 4 (vertical) columns and the (horizontal) chapters and sub-chapters which define the matrix. The columns "backbone I" and "backbone II" constitute the hard core of the Hyperscript; the columns "illustrations" and "exercises" intend to help in understanding and to practical applications of what has been learned.
The cells of the matrix contain all the modules, identified by their filename. The first letter of a filename has a specific meaning not important in this context. The numbers have the following meaning:
1. number = chapter
2. number = subchapter
3. number = running integer
 
Color coding of entries
Fonts Fixed Filenames
Blue Module is finished. r1_2_3 Backbone: Module 3 in chapter 1.2
Red Modul exists but is not finished q1_2_1 Excercises: "Quick questions" to chapter 1.2
Green Module contains JAVA or animation sq1_2_1 Excercises: Solutions to "Quick questions"
Light green "Multiple Choice" Exercises e1_2_3 Excercises: Third full exercise to chapter 1.2
Light blue "Quick questions" Exercises s1_2_3 Excercises: Solution to third full exercise to chapter 1.2
Pink Summaries c1_2_1 Excercises: "Multiple choice" to chapter 1.2

Basics Backbone I Backbone II Illustrations Exercises Advanced

1. Introduction

1.1 Scope of the Course

r1_1_1
General Remarks

i1_1_1
Products and components


1.2 Introduction to the Course

r1_2_1
Motivation for the Content




2. Semiconductor Materials and Products

2.1 General Chemistry and Structure
  r2_1_1
Elemental Semiconductors
r2_1_2
Compound Semiconductors general
r2_1_3
Some relevant properties
r2_1_4
Summary
  i2_1_1
Sphalerite and Wurtzite
q2_1_1
Quick questions
sq2_1_1
Solution to q2_1_1
t2_1_1
Germanium
t2_1_2
Selenium
2.2 Silicon
  r2_2_1
Si and microelectronics
r2_2_2
Si other uses
r2_2_3
Summary
    q2_2_1
Quick questions
sq2_2_1
Solution to q2_2_1
t2_2_1
Exotic uses of Si
2.3 III-V Semiconductors
  r2_3_1
III-V and optoelectronics
r2_3_2
II-VI other products
r2_3_3
Summary
    q2_3_1
Quick questions
sq2_3_1
Solution to q2_2_1
t2_3_1
III-V Highlights
2.4 Other Semiconductors and Related Products
  r2_4_1
Ge and SiC
r2_4_3
II-VI semiconductors
r2_4_3
Chalkogenides
r2_4_4
Organic semiconductors
r2_4_5
Summary
    q2_4_1
Quick questions
t2_4_1
Layered semiconductors
2.5 Exotic Semiconductors, Processes and Products
    r2_5_1
Porous semiconductors
r2_5_2
Metal Oxides
     
2.6 Semiconductor Materials and Products - Summary
  r2_6_1
Summary
q2_6_1
All quick questions
 

3. Thin Films

3.1 General
b3_1_1
Interference colors
r3_1_1
Remarks; Definitions
r3_1_2
Applications
r3_1_3
Summary
    e3_1_1
Quick questions
 
3.2 Mechanical Properties
  r3_2_1
Geometry and Topology
r3_2_2
Adhesion
r3_2_3
Stress and strain
r3_2_4
Summary
  i3_2_1
Thermal expansion coefficients

pdf file
Lab class "Oberflächenstrukturen"
e3_2_1
Quick questions
t3_2_1
Microcrack mysteries
3.3 Nucleation and Growth
  r3_3_1
In the beginning
r3_3_2
Nucleation and growth
r3_3_3
Summary
  i3_3_1
STM / AFM pictures
i3_3_2
Interface energies

e3_3_1
Quick questions
t3_3_1
Surface reconstruction
t3_3_2
Nucleation theory
3.4 Structure, Interface and Some Properties
  r3_4_1
Epitaxy
r3_4_2
Film structure
r3_4_3
Film properties
r3_4_4
Summary
    e3_4_1
Quick questions
 
3.5 Properties, Measurements and Characterization
    r3_5_1
General properties
r3_5_2
Important techniques
r3_5_3
Structural properties
     
3.6 Thin Films - Summary
  r3_6_1
Summary
e3_6_1
All Quick questions
 

4. Getting Started

4.1 Input to Si Processing in an Industrial Environment
  r4_1_1
The factory
r4_1_2
Producing Poly Si
r4_1_3
Si crystal and wafer
r4_1_4
Summary
  i4_1_1
Materials I
i4_1_2
Materials II
i4_1_3
Materials III
i4_1_4
Commercial Poly Si specs.
i4_1_5
CZ Crystal Growth
i4_1_6
Necking
i4_1_7
Finished crystal
i4_1_8
Flats
i4_1_9
Production process
i4_1_10
Wafer specs
e4_1_1
Quick questions
t4_1_1
Si crisis in 2007
t4_1_2
Biography J. Czochralski
t4_1_3
Science and art crystal growth
t4_1_4
FZ crystal growth

Article 1: History + development Si
Article 2: New developments Si crystal growth
4.2 Other Semiconductor Crystal Growth Technologies
  r4_2_1
Other single crystals
r4_2_2
No need for single crystals
r4_2_3
Summary
    e4_2_1
Quick questions
t4_2_1
Alternative crystal growth

Article: SOI
4.3 Infrastructure
    r4_3_1
Cleanroom, particles, defects
r4_3_2
Packaging, testing
r4_3_3
working chip development
r4_3_4
Generation sequence
r4_3_5
Summary
i4_3_1
Air
i4_3_2
Cleanroom garments
i4_3_3
Dirty humans
i4_3_4
particles
i4_3_5
Broom
i4_3_6
Emergence new chip
i4_3_7
Chip size
e4_3_1
Quick questions
t4_3_1
Cleanroom
4.4 Getting Started - Summary
  r4_4_1
Summary
c4_4_1
Multiple choice
e4_4_1
All Quick questions
 

5. Integrated Circuits - Process Integration

5.1 Basic Considerations for Process Integration
b5_1_1
Basic bipolar
b5_1_2
Basic MOS
b5_1_3
RC time constant
r5_1_1
What is integration?
r5_1_2
Integrating transistors
r5_1_3
Integrating connections
r5_1_4
MOS transistors
r5_1_5
Integrated CMOS
r5_1_6
Summary
  i5_1_1
Cross section DRAM
c5_1_6
Multiple choice
e5_1_1
Transistors
e5_1_6
Quick questions
t5_1_1
Polyimide Story
5.2 Process Integration
  r5_2_1
Chips on Wafers
r5_2_2
Packaging chips
r5_2_3
Summary
  i5_3_1
Moore's law breakdown
i5_3_2
Costs of Chip Production
i5_3_3
Prize Decay
i5_3_4
Yield development
c5_2_1
Multiple choice
5.3 Money, Markets and Management
    r5_3_1
Money and Moore's law
     
5.4 Integrated Circuits - Process Integration - Summary
  r5_4_1
Summary
c5_4_1
Multiple choice
e5_4_1
All Quick questions
 

6. Materials and Processes for Silicon Technology

6.1 Si Oxides and LOCOS Process
  r6_1_1
Importance of Silicon Dioxide
r6_1_2
LOCOS
r6_1_3
Summary
  i6_1_1
Forms of SiO2
i6_1_2
HRTEM SiO2 / ONO
i6_1_3
Furnaces
i6_1_4
LOCOS with poly
c6_1_1
Multiple choice
t6_1_1
Electrical break down
t6_1_2
Box isolation
t6_1_3
TEM LOCOS
6.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition
  r6_2_1
Si epitaxy
r6_2_2
Oxide CVD
r6_2_3
Other CVD
r6_2_4
Summary
  i6_2_1
TEM poly Si
c6_2_1
Multiple choice
t6_2_1
FOBIC
6.3 Physical Processes for Layer Deposition
  r6_3_1
Sputter deposition
r6_3_2
Ion implantation
r6_3_3
Miscellaneous techniques
r6_3_4
Summary
  i6_3_1
Requirements metallization
i6_3_2
Amorphization
c6_3_1
Multiple choice
t6_3_1
Spiking
t6_3_2
Electromigration
t6_3_4
Doping trenches

Article:
Eltran process
6.4 Etching Techniques
  r6_4_1
General remarks
r6_4_2
Chemical etching
r6_4_3
Plasma etching
r6_4_4
Summary
  i6_4_1
Loosing money
  t6_4_1
Dry etching
6.5 Lithography
  r6_5_1
Basic lithography; reticles
r6_5_2
Resist, steppers
r6_5_3
Summary
      t6_5_1
Advanced lithography
6.6 Materials and Processes for Silicon Technology - Summary
  r6_6_1
Summary
c6_6_1
Multiple choice
 

7. Si MEMS

7.1 Products and Developments
b7_1_1
Coriolis Force
r7_1_1
What is MEMS?
r7_1_2
Gyro close look
r7_1_3
Sensors and Actuators
r7_1_4
Summary
  i7_1_1
MEMS market
i7_1_2
DLP chip
i7_1_3
RF MEMS
i7_1_4
Optical MEMS
i7_1_5
BioMEMS
pdf file
Bosch g sensor
e7_1_1
Quick questions
e7_1_2
Capacitors and Forces
s7_1_2
Solution to e7_1_2
t7_1_1
Gas flow sputtering
t7_1_2
Piezoresistive effect
t7_1_3
Casimir effect
7.2 Processes and Specialities
  r7_2_1
Processes, materials; general
r7_2_1
Key processes
r7_2_3
Process integration
r7_2_4
Summary
    e7_2_1
Quick questions
t7_2_1
Stiction

7.3 Si MEMS - Summary
  r7_3_1
Summary
e7_3_1
All quick questions
 

8. Solar Cells

8.1 General Concerns
b8_1_1
Joules, Watts and kWh
r8_1_1
Basic Solar Cell Topics
r8_1_2
Basic SC characteristics
r8_1_3
Summary
  pdf file
Article: Smalley "Terawatt challenge"
pdf file
Article: Lewis "Powering the planet"
e8_1_1
Exponential growth
s8_1_1
Solution to e8_1_1
e8_1_2
Optimal working point SC
s8_1_2
Solution to e8_1_2
e8_1_3
Characteristics real SC
s8_1_3
Solution to e8_1_2
e8_1_4
Quick questions
e8_1_5
Diode / solar cell
s8_1_5
Solution to e8_1_5
e8_1_6
log I vs. eU
s8_1_6
Solution to e8_1_6
t8_1_1
Two planets
t8_1_2
FAQ's solar cells
t8_1_3
Modules
t8_1_4
CELLO
t8_1_5
Series and parallel connection
t8_1_6
Basic IU characteristics

pdf file
Lab class "IV characteristics"
8.2 Making Bulk Si Solar Cells
  r8_2_1
Production; Silicon Starting Material
r8_2_2
Processes and Integration
r8_2_3
Summary
    e8_2_1
Quick questions
t8_2_1
POCl process
t8_2_2
Screen printing
8.3 Making Thin Film Solar Cells
  r8_3_1
Types of thin film SC's
r8_3_2
Producing thin film SC's
r8_3_3
Summary
  i8_3_1
Würth Solar
e8_3_1
Series connection
s8_3_1
Solution to e8_3_1
e8_3_2
Quick questions
 
8.4 Solar Cells - Summary
  r8_4_1
Summary
e8_4_1
All quick questions
 

9. Optoelectronics

9.1 General Concerns
  r9_1_1
Semiconductors and Light
r9_1_2
Optoelectronic Devices
r9_1_3
Summary
    e9_1_1
Quick questions
t9_1_1
Quasi particles
9.2 Important Principles and Technologies
  r9_2_1
LED's
r9_2_2
Laser diodes
r9_2_3
Summary
  i9_2_1
MBE
e9_2_1
Quick questions
t9_2_1
Recombination channels
t9_2_2
Cleaving semiconductors
9.3 Optoelectronics - Summary
  r9_3_1
Summary
e9_3_1
All quick questions
 
           
Basics Backbone I Backbone II Illustrations Exercises Advanced
Modul Count (finished moduls only) S = 237
4 96 10 42 51 34