Large Pictures

Some bronze swords shown in the Schleswig-Holstein Landesmuseum, Schleswig, Germany.
The one in the middle is a modern replica, showing the splendor of these swords when they were nicely polished.
   
Bronze swords in Schleswig Museum
Link to text Source: Photographed 2014 at Schleswig-Holstein Landesmuseum, Schleswig, Germany
 
"Vollgriffschwerter" (Naue II type) in Schleswig. This blades are very similar to the ones found
in Nebra and dated to 1600 BC
 
Vollgriffschwerter (Naue I) Schleswig
Link to text Source: Photographed at Schleswig-Holstein Landesmuseum, Schleswig, Germany
   
"Griffzungenschwerter" (Naue II type) shown in Schleswig.
 
Griffzungenschwert (Naue II) Schleswig
Link to text Source: Photographed at Schleswig-Holstein Landesmuseum, Schleswig, Germany
   
Thrusting swords shown in Schleswig. Note the pronounced central ridge.
 
Bronze thrusting swords
Link to text Source: Photographed 2014 at Schleswig-Holstein Landesmuseum, Schleswig, Germany
 
Bronze swords shown in in the Copenhagen / Denmark museum
 
Bronze swords Copenhagen
Link to text Source: Photographed 2014 in the Copenhagen museum
   
Bronze swords Copenhagen
Link to text Source: Photographed 2014 in the Copenhagen museum
 
Bronze swords shown in in the Dublin / Irland museum
 
Bonze swords Dublin museum
Source: Photographed 2015 in the Dublin museum
   
Bonze swords Dublin museum
Source: Photographed 2015 in the Dublin museum
 
The archaeological museum in Stockholm has several interesting bronze swords on its (badly lit)
display, including one with a golden handle:
 
Bonze swords; Stockholm
Bronze swords; Stockholm
Bronze sword with golden handle; Stockholm
Source: Photographed 2015 in the Stockholm museum
   
The Eemitage in St. Petersburg, while world famous for its pictures and baroque affluence,
also has an archaeological department where (badly lit and described) swords and other things are shown.
Here are some (eastern?) bronze swords with somewhat unusual shapes:
 
Bronze swords form the Caucasus; St. Petersburg
Source: Photographed 2015 in the Eremitage; St. Petersburg
   
Bronze swords and spear points form the so-called Huelva hoard found in Spain.
There is some debate if these swords belong the the "carp's tongue type" common in western and eastern
Europe around 1000 BC. The blade of the carp's tongue sword was wide and parallel for most of its length but the
final third narrowed into a thin tip intended
for thrusting. The design was probably developed in north western France and combined the broad blade useful for slashing
with a thinner, elongated tip suitable for thrusting. Many carp's tongue swords have been found in England.
 
Bronze swords from the Huelva hoard
Link to text Source: Museo Arqueológico Nacional, Madrid, Spain
   
The famous Rørby sword - only two of this kind have been found so far (in Denmark?) says
the Copenhagen museum.
On top is the one with the engraved boat.
However, there is at least one in Stockholm,/ Sveden, see below
 
Rorby bronze sword
Link to text Source: Photographed 2014in the Copenhagen museum
   
 
Rorby bronze sword; boat engraving
Source: Photographed in the Copenhagen museum.
   
Here is the Stockholm sword, found in Östergötland, Heda, Norrö and dated to 1700 BC - 1500 BC:
   
 
Bronze sword unusual shape Stockholm
Link to text Source: Photographed 2015 in the Stockholm museum
   
Bronze swords were very expensive. If you couldn't afford one, you could still try to emullate one using flintstone.
Here are examples.
   
StOne"swOrds", COpenhagen
Link to text Source: Photographed in the Copenhagen museum.
     
Khopesh or sickle sword; typically bronze but some iron ones have also
been found. The khopesh (or khepesh) evolved from battle axes; around 1300 BC it became
outdated. King Tut's khopesh is thus about "the end of the line".
 
King Tut's khopesh sword Egyptian Khopesh from Shechem Babylonian sickle sword
Tutankhamun's bronze khopesh; ca, 1350 BC Egyptian iron khopesh from Shechem
ca. 1800 BC; with electron (Au / Ag alloy) ornamentation
Assyrian bronze sickle sword; ca, 1300 BC
Metropolitan
Link to text Source: Internet at large
   
  The Assyrian sword bears the cuneiform inscription: "Palace of Adad-nirari, king of the universe, son of Arik-e-ili, king of Assyria, son of Enlil-nirare, king of Assyria". One is inclined to believe that it belonged to Adad-nirari who lived from ca. 1307 BC - 1275 BC. The sword has no working edge.
     
Here we have three Luristan iron swords from a private Portuguese collection.
The swords are almost perfectly preserved. While they are very similar, they do show individual differences.
Then a sword sold at an auction, and a sword I found in the Israel museum in Jerusalem.
 
Luristan iron swords Luristan mask sword Luristan iron sword
Note that a bit of some sheath is still clinging to the blade
Link to text
Source left: M. M. Khorasani: "Arms and Armor from Iran", Legat Verlag, Tübingen 2006
Source: Photographed in the Israel Museum in Nov. 2017 Source: Photographed in the Brussels museum for art and historxy, March 2019
   
 
Link to text Source: M. M. Khorasani: "Arms and Armor from Iran", Legat Verlag, Tübingen 2006
     
Luristan iron swords; LACMA Luristan iron swords; LACMA Luristan iron sword
These two specimen live in the bowels
of the "LACMA" (Los Angeles County
Museum of Art); they are part of the
Nasli M. Heeramaneck Collection of
Ancient Near Eastern and Central Asian Art.
The one on the left is peculiar. Only the
heads are slightly corroded, the rest is
like new and missing the "lions".
Link to text Source: LACMA (and PinInterest, and ....) Source: Interent, formerlyyAlamy but without further reference
   
This picture shows the structure of the blade of the Toronto Luristan iron sword.
The scale is not given but it is something like 5 mm across. The surface-near regions are substantially
lower in carbon than the center. This is probably due to de-carburization during extensive heating and forging
 
Structure of Luristan iron swod
Link to text Source K. R. Maxwell-Hyslop et al.
   
This picture shows details of some Luristan sword in comparison to the sword in the Louvre / Paris.
They are obviously quite similar.
 
Luristan sword; comparison to Louvre sword
Link to text
 
This picture shows a Luristan iron sword of type II found on the archive of a commercial dealer
 
Luristan iron sword
Link to text
 
We have two Assyrian princes with swords on a limestone relief in the Khorsabad Palace;
Reign of Sargon II, 721 - 705 BC. Note that the one on the right seems to have
been "shaved" by some stone mason
 
Assyrian princes with swords
Link to text Source: Oriental Institute Chicago; Internet
   
Below we see the Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II (ca. 883-859 B.C.) carrying a long sword besides his two
akinakai-type daggers. Note that the chape pf the scabbard is of the "winged chape" variety,
hinting at use from horse back.
   
 
Ashurnasirpal II; sword
Link to text Source: Metropolitan museum; New York City
   
Some Greek or better Macedonian body builders hunting a lion with a spear and a kopis / falcata.
Note that the falcata would nit fit into the sheath.
 
Kopis sword Greek in mosaic
Link to text Source: Mosaic from Pella (ancient Macedonia) 400 BC - 300 BC. Pella Archaeological Museum; open domain
   
Hunting lions with a sword and loosing, it seems.
Hunting lions with a sword and loosing
Link to text Source:Photographed 2013 in a late Roman villa in Sicily, near Noto
 
A "Griffzungenschwert" ("Naue II type") from Altena castle; Germany.
About 1000 BC and from the general region.
 
Griffzungenschwert Altena
Link to text Source: Photographed 2014at Altena castle museum
   
The "Neues Museum" Berlin shows a Kopis / Falcata that it attributes to Spain:
 
Falcata / kopis; Neues Museum, Berlin
Link to text Source: Photographed 2015 in the "Neues Museum",. Berlin
   
Here is the Budapest falcata:
 
Falcata / Kopis, National Museum, Budapest, Hungary
Link to text Source: Photographed 2015 in the National Museum, Budapest, Hungary
   
Here is an iron sword in the shape of a bronze sword:
 
Celtic iron sword shaped like bronze sword
The text of the auction house (Timeline Auctions, July 2017)
IRON AGE EARLY BRITISH CELTIC SWORD 12th-10th century BC
An iron sword copying a typical pattern of the Late Bronze Age period, of generally Ewart Park form, the blade tapering from
the point to its widest and tapering again to the flared hilt with a pronounced central rib to the full length; the hilt (lacking the
extremity) with two surviving rivets that would have secured organic hilt scales.
Extremely rare. Reputedly found in East Anglia, early 20th century, during dyke cutting operations.
Footnotes The change from bronze to iron as primary material for weapons and implements happened slowly and spread to Britain
from Europe; this sword is a direct copy in iron of a classic bronze type and the ironsmith who made it must have been familiar
with the traditional bronze sword forms, indicating an early date and it was possibly imported from Europe. As such it represents
a fascinating and important link between the two cultures of metalworking that started in the Proto-Celtic Hallstatt culture.
Link to text Source:Timeline Auctions, July 2017
   
Here is the newly (2020) Arslantepe sword found in a monastery in Venice
 
Arslantepe sword Venice
Link to text Source: InternetM ascribed to Andrea Avezzu / University of Venice
   
Here is the full drawing of the lost relief showing the taking of a Mannean fortress in 715 BC, as depicted on a now lost relief from room 14 (slab 2) of Sargon II's palace at Khorsabad
 
Assyrian sword fight
Link to text Sources: Internet articel: Mannea, a forgotten kingdom of Iran. Karen Radner, 'Mannea, a forgotten kingdom of Iran', Assyrian empire builders, University College London, 2013
   

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go to Sword Types

go to Fire Welding

go to Discussion of the "Cut Sword" Findings

go to Part 1 Basics about Scythians and Their Akinakai

go to Critical Museum Guide: Metropolitan Museum, NYC

go to Critical Museum Guide: Museums in Copenhagen

go to Critical Museum Guide: Landesmuseum Schleswig-Holstein in Schleswig, Germany

go to Israel Museum

go to Florence Museums

go to Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte (Halle)

go to Sword Parts

go to 11.2.1 Background to Celtic Swords

go to Sword Places: Luristan

go to 11.1.4 Swords of Major Near East Powers in the 1st Millennium BC

go to 11.1.3 The The Luristan Iron Sword

go to 11.1.2 The Bronze Sword

go to More Luristan Swords

go to 11.1.1 The Early Sword

go to Scythian Special Large Pictures

go to Scythian Special

go to Early Iron Making Empires in the Middle East / Mediterranean

go to Aditional Pictures

go to Bronze Colors

go to Sword Places

go to Luristan Special

go to The Luristan Project - Results from Cut Swords

go to The Luristan Project - Results from Cut Swords Part 2

go to The Luristan Project - Large Pictures of Cut Sword

go to The Luristan Project - Results from Cut Swords

go to Master of Animals Finials from Luristan

go to The Luristan Project - Literature Review

go to Master of Animals

go to Scythian Akinakai

go to Literature to "Scythian Special"

go to The Luristan Project - Results

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