|Fire welding; also called
forge welding, pressure welding or contact
welding, is the most important technology in iron and steel working as long as
you cannot melt the stuff. It is first used when a bloom is compacted, and
after that in forging pretty much everything that was ever made from solid iron
or steel. Until about 1000 AD, swords or other large iron / steel articles were
almost always made by
i.e. by fire welding several pieces of iron / steel. After about 1000 AD swords
might have been made from one billet of steel but that piece had been
fagotted and thus was exposed to
extensive fire welding, too. We do not know much about that, though.
I gave you already a whole module about "Welding with Hammer and Fire". It described what happens rather clearly, I think. So why do I have problems with fire or hammer welding now, remarking on it already here or there?
My present problem, or "the" problem is rather simple: too many questions come up as soon as one looks more closely at fire welding. In essence, they all concern how to get rid of the oxides that cover the surfaces to be welded. Typically, this is supposed to happen either via the reduction of the oxides in a reducing atmosphere at high temperatures and / or by liquefying the oxide by forming liquid fayalite (Fe2SiO4) or some other slag via the addition of "sand", meaning essentially SiO2. Fayalite liquefaction requires temperatures of at least 1200 oC (2192 °F).
I concede that some left-over oxide might not be a big problem since the banging with a hammer will break it up into small parts. But these small particles then will be found in the vicinity of the weld seam, and you can't have too many without compromising the quality of the product.
Considering that fire welding took place all the time in iron and steel technology, it is obviously not all that difficult to do. Slag, oxide and "flux" particles are indeed found in weld seams quite frequently as one could expect. So where is the problem?
The problem is that there are too many questions that do not have clear and convincing answers. One or two open questions - OK. Don't worry, be happy. You may not know the answers but somebody else probably does and it will become clear sooner or later. Now look at my long list:
|The picture shows modern fire welding of eight
sizeable flat sheets with a snug fit. How solid or even liquid stuff can get
between the plates is not clear to me. Yes, I know that capillary action might
suck it in - but the same capillary action then would make the getting out part
It is also quite unlikely that the work piece is at a 1200 oC temperature. While one needs to be careful with the reproduction of colors on screens, it is certainly not fully white as required at that temperature. There is also no reducing atmosphere, of course. Nevertheless - the process works.
|What Do We Know?|
|Let's dig a bit deeper by looking at some of what has been written about fire welding in the context of the questions above. A good way to start is Buchwald's momentous book: Iron and steel in ancient times.|
|Vagn Buchwald dedicates several pages of his book to "the art of hammer welding". He essentially follows the logic outlined above but with slight contradictions: hammer welding needs temperatures at "1100 - 1250 oC" or requires "heating to about 1100 oC in a reducing atmosphere". The oxide formation on hot iron is discussed in some detail, and Buchwald points out that "they (the oxides) easily reach a thickness of 0.2 mm in a matter of minutes at high temperatures". It appears that Buchwald assumes that some wüstite is unavoidable and that all welding seams must contain some of the stuff. Several pictures illustrate this by showing weld seams with inclusions of oxide (wüstite, FeO) or even SiO2 grains on occasion. However, there are plenty of pictures elsewhere that show perfectly clean weld seams with no or very few oxide inclusions,|
|On a more detailed level Buchwald argues that the
oxidation process would result in a carbon denuded and phosphorous enriched
surface layer and thus in a weld seam with impurity concentrations different
from that of the bulk. That might well be the case and has been observed - but
it doesn't necessarily follow from the arguments provided.
The action of the SiO2 "flux" is twofold. First, the fayalite "slag" formed by reaction with the oxide protects the iron /steel from the oxygen in the air and thus hinders further oxidation. Second, the liquefied stuff can be "squeezed out" or made to run away by tapping the work piece, providing clean surfaces.
Buchwald mentions that Borax also works as "flux" but does not say how.
|He also adds a new point: "as a curiosity, sand/quartz will not react with the surface oxides on hot-forged iron unless the iron is surrounded by a reducing atmosphere, so that the surface oxide is FeO". That might well be true. We just get a new problem: if you sprinkle sand on the iron, it is rather hard to do this in a reducing atmosphere since during the sprinkling it is obviously exposed to the air. You can sprinkle on the sand and then bring iron plus sand back into the reducing part of your hearth (i.e. "under" the coals), of course, and hope for the best.|
|Everything Buchwald writes makes sense - but doesn't really answer my questions from above. So let's look at how modern practitioners describe the fire welding process.|
|I checked several "manuals" for
aspiring smiths' about how to fire weld. They all agreed that you should put
some "flux" on the surfaces to be welded: "When the bars reach a bright orange, with the bars
remaining in the fire, take your fire rake and make a hole in the fire over the
scarves (pieces to be welded) so flux may be
sprinkled on the face of the scarves".
It is also recommended to make the two surfaces to be joined slightly convex. Then they only touch at the center and you can weld with the hammer from the center to the outside, allowing the liquid slag / flux to move away as you proceed.
|There is also a general agreement about the
|That is all fine and the recipes given obviously work. But I stick to my guns and claim that most of my question above have not been really answered. And don't forget that the situation now is different from that 2000 years ago. A modern smith can easily go up to 1200 oC, possibly even in the reducing part of his fire, by just cranking up the power of his air (or possibly oxygen) blower. An ancient smith would have had far more problems in doing that, if he could do it at all.|
|As far as point 10 of my questions list is concerned, I simply, refer you to some modern writings - in this link. In addition I just point out that there is some suspicion that the Romans used a iron -arsenic alloy, i.e. a variant of "speiss", with a low melting point as "flux" for joining iron / steel. That means that they actually did not perform fire or hammer welding but soldered or brazed the pieces together. The arsenic will diffuse out of the "solder" into the iron and the final result is an iron -iron joint surrounded by a region high in arsenic (As). and low in carbon.|
|Let's stop here. There are plenty of
possible comments and elucidations to my questions from above. I could go on
for quite some time but we just won't get anywhere.
The facts are that fire welding is quite tricky and not easily done by beginners in smithing. It is not a particularly difficult job for an experienced smith, though. There is no doubt that in general terms fire welding proceeds more or less as described, but there is also no doubt in my mind that it is somewhat easier than it should be according to theory (a good thing!,) and that the details of what is going on are not yet fully understood.
|1)||G. Becker: "Niedrig schmelzende Eisen-Arsen-Legierungen als Hilfsmittel für den Verbund römischer Schwertklingen." Arch. Eisenhüttenwes. 32, (1961) pp 661 - 665.|
Books and Other Major Sources
11.2.2 Metallurgy of Celtic Swords
Critical Museum Guide: Metropolitan Museum, NYC
Early Iron Sites: Hattusa
Antique Texts Concerning Iron
11.3 Pattern Welding 11.3.1 Background to Pattern Welding
Large Pictures 1
Sword Places: Luristan
6.2.3 Welding with Fire or Hammer
Large Pictures chapter 11.4
Large Pictures 2 - Chapter 11.3
11.6.4 Metallurgy of the Japanese Sword
Celtic Anthropoid Sword Hilts
Moravian 9th Century Swords
Large Pictures - Chapter 11.2
Large Pictures - Chapter 11.1
Tricks of Smiths
Riveting, Soldering, Liquid Welding Plus Gluing and Screwing
Odds and Ends about Researching the History of Iron Technology
Metallography of 8th / 9th Century Swords and Saxes
Analyzing the Forging of a "Viking" Sword
11.3.4 Metallography of Pattern Welded Swords
11.6.2 Making a Japanese Sword - Part 1
The Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Dover Buckland, Kent, UK and the technology of some of the iron artefacts.
© H. Föll (Iron, Steel and Swords script)