Large Pictures 2    Chapter 11.3

Spear and lance points from Nydam in the Schleswig museum
 
Spear and lance points from Nydam
Link to text Source: Photographed at the Landesmuseum Schleswig
   
A quite good excerpt of the sword types as defined by Elis Behmer
 
Sword classification Behmer
Link to text Source: Some Polish sword site; can't give details, sorry.
   
Overview of Staffordshire hoard pommels.
 
Staffordshire hoard; overview pommels
Link to text Source: By Medievalists.net – March 19, 2014
   
Some close-ups of the Staffordshire hoard pommels.
 
Staffordshire hoard; sword pommels
Link to text Source: Internet at large (British museum, Birmingham museum, National Geographic, newspapers, ...)
   
A very nice Pyramid garnet pommel, displayed in the Stockholm Archaeological Museum.
It is actually the "Hög Edsten" pommel mentioned in the main text.
Pyramid garnet pommel; stockholm Hög Edsten pommel; Stockholm
Link to text Source: Photographed 2015 in the Stockhol museum
   
A very involved pommel with different designs on front and back. Seems to be gilded bronze
and was found in Aldbrough; ca. 600 AD - 650 AD.
 
Pyramidal gold garnet pommel
Link to text Source: Sorry. Forgot
   
A rather good pyramid garnet pommel coming up for sale at an auction in Jan 2018.
So for just around 4.000 Euro you couild own such a thing.
Well, not quite. It was sold on Feb, 26th 2019 for £ 13.000.- (about $ 17.000.-)
 
Pyramid pommel
Link to text Source: Timeline auction catalogue
   
This is a drawing of a Niederstotzingen Alamanni grave where three people were buried.
Each person was inhumated with a big sword, a sax, and many smaller items.
And one of the persons was a woman!
 
Niederstotzingen Alamanni grave with female warrior
Link to text Source: Old drawing by some Paulsen; shown in many places, e.g. here or in Menghins's book
   
  In the next picture you can "see" the actual content of the graves as displayed in the
Württemberg State Museum, Stuttgart, Germany. What you actually can see
quite clearly (in contrast tot the grave things) is that the museum has succumbed to
the dreaded Keep-things-in-the-dark disease, and you see mostly reflections.
     
Niederstotzingen grave
Link to text Source: Photographed in-situ Dec. 2017
     
Type 8 and 9 swords according to Behmer. From around 650 - 800.
Behmer says almost nothing to the blades but they are most likely not pattern welded.
 
Behmer type 8 and 9 swords
Link to text Source: Internet at large (British museum, Birmingham museum, National Geographic, newspapers, ...)
   
A pyramid pommel sword from some bog (probably Nydam).
 
Pyramid pommel; Copenhagen
Link to text Source: Photographed in the Copenhagen museum
   
This one is displayed in the National museum in Helsinki, Finland.
Note that it is very similar to the Copenhagen one above.
 
Pommel ring hilt; Helsinki
Link to text Source: Photographed in the Helsinki museum
   
This one is displayed in National museum in Rome, Italy. It was found in Grave 1 of the Necropolis of Nocera, Umbra. It appears that the ring has been added later
 
7th century pyramid hilt sword; Rome
Link to text Source: Rome museum
   
You dont' have to go very far from where I live to find fancy sword hilts including the pommel ring type.
The following pictures were taken from the (500+ page) PhD thesis of Ulrich Lehmann
who did a detailed study (involving fancy technology like X-ray tomography) of some swords from around the 7th / 8th
century and found in Westphalia, North Germany
 
Sword hilts
Left: Found around Krefeld; 520 - 530 AD.
Middle: Found around Beckum; 590 – 610 AD.
Right: : Found around Dorsten-Lembeck; 730 – 800 AD.
Source: Lehmann thesis
   
Some pictures from the large hoard of Roman iron from Künzing, Bavaria, Germany. The stuff was most
likely buried after the Alemanni took the Roman fortress there in 259 AD.
 
Hoard of Roman iron form Kuenzing

Hoard of Roman iron form Kuenzing
 
Hoard of Roman iron form Kuenzing
Link to text 1 Link to text 2 Link to text 3 Source: Photographed (2014) in the Archäologischen Staatssammlung, München, Germany
   
Here a few of the pugios displayed in the Archäologische Staatssammlung, München, Germany.
 
Roman pugios in Munich
Source: Photographed (2014) in the Archäologischen Staatssammlung, München, Germany
   
Here are stereo pictures of details in the famous Rococo Church in Ottobeuren, Germany.
Tip: If you can't see it three-dimensionally after some effort (moving your head a bit back and forth, left and right),
print the picture (or transfer them to a picture processing program), cut out one part and move it around a bit while looking.
Start with the two pictures closer together.
If you see two pictures, move one part until both images coincide. The effect is rather spectacular.
 
Stereo picture rococo church
Stereo picture rococo church
Link to text Source: Photographed (2014) in the Benedictine Abbey Church in Ottobeuren
   
This sword is shown in the Mainfränkisches Museum, Würzburg, Germany. It was found in the Würzburg area
and dates (presumably) to the 6th century if we go by the Behmer classification. Note that its hilt has silver inlays
("Tauschierungen") and that the well preseved blald shows no obvious traces of pattern welding.
Looking closely a the corroded parts of the tang (see the inset) reveals the all-telling striped bar structure
and we may savely assume that the blade was pattern welded with one or two of the striped bars contuing
into the tang region.
   
Alemanni sword, pattern welded; Wuerzburg
Link to text Source: Photographed 2014 in the Mainfränkisches Museum, Würzburg, Germany
   
Details of the three Alemanni swords from Memmingen. Have these blades been made by pattern welding?
The left-hand side blade does not show obvious signs of pattern welding. The cracks indicated might denote
the weld line of striped rods but that is not certain. Nevertheless I would bet that pattern welding was involved.
The middle blade shows the telling-all herringbone pattern in its center and thus "classical" Alemanni pattern
welding. The blade on the right-hand side shows tell-tale marks pattern welding marks only on the second
look. Welding seams between rods can be found (marked by arrows), and even a faint trace of half a herring
bone pattern can be discerned in some small part..
   
Alemanni swords from Memmingen; details
Link to text 1 Link to text 2 Source: Photographed (2014) in the Memmingem town museum.
   
Here you find large pictures of the four gold-hilt spatha on display in the Württemberg State Museum
The Entringen gold-hilt spatha:
   
Gold hilt spatha from Entringen Gold hilt spatha from Entringen
Link to text Source: Photographed 2015 in the Württemberg State Museum, Germany
   
The first Gültlingen gold-hilt spatha:
   
Gold-hilt spatha; Gueltlingen Gold-hilt spatha; Gueltlingen
Link to text Source: Photographed 2014 in the Württemberg State Museum, Germany
   
The second Gültlingen gold-hilt spatha:
   
Gold-hilt spatha; Gueltlingen Gold-hilt spatha; Gueltlingen
Link to text Source: Photographed 2014 in the Württemberg State Museum, Germany
   
The fourth gold-hilt spatha from Pleidelsheim:
   
Gold-hilt spatha; Pleidelsheim Gold-hilt spatha; Pleidelsheim
Link to text Source: Photographed 2014 in the Württemberg State Museum, Germany
   

1) Ulrich Lehmann: "Wurmbunte Klingen. Studien zu Konstruktion, Herstellung und Wertigkeit der frühmittelalterlichen Spatha in Westfalen"
Veröffentlichungen der Altertumskommission für westfalen Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe Band 21; herausgegeben von Aurelia Dickers.
Aschendorff Verlag 20176

With frame With frame as PDF

go to Books and Other Major Sources

go to Damascene Meanings

go to Fire Welding

go to

go to Critical Museum Guide: Landesmuseum Württemberg; Württemberg State Museum, Stuttgart, Germany

go to Critical Museum Guide: Museums in Copenhagen

go to Critical Museum Guide: Landesmuseum Schleswig-Holstein in Schleswig, Germany

go to Critical Museum Guide: "The Vikings" Special Exhibition from Oct. 2014 - Jan. 2015 in the Martin-Gropius-Bau

go to 11.2.3 Roman Swords

go to Nydam

go to Danish Bog Sacrifices

go to 11.4.2 Blades of Viking Era Swords

go to Sword Polishing and Revealing the Pattern / Structure

go to 11.3.3 Evolution of Pattern Welding

go to "Damascene" Patterns

go to Illerup Swords with Special Patterns

go to Migration Period Swords and Fancy Hilts & Pommels

go to Northern Sword Types of the First Millennium

go to 10.5.4 Making Steel Things

go to Serpent in the Sword

go to Käthe Harnecker and Wootz Blades

go to Additional Pictures

go to Illerup Ådal

go to Radiographie Study of Pattern Welded Swords

go to Gemstones

go to 11.3.4 Metallography of Pattern Welded Swords

go to The Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Dover Buckland, Kent, UK and the technology of some of the iron artefacts.

go to Additional Pictures - Chapter 11.1

go to Some Less Important

go to Maps of Various Cultures

go to Mythology of Wootz Swords: Cutting a Stone

go to Wurmbunte Klingen. Studien zu Konstruktion, Herstellung und Wertigkeit der frühmittelalterlichen Spatha in Westfalen

© H. Föll (Iron, Steel and Swords script)