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"Semiconductor Technology"

© H. Föll

Blue: Backbone I
Red: Backbone II
Matrix of Modules

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

1.1 Scope of the Course  
General outline, relation to other courses, books  
Required background knowledge  
Organizational remarks  
Exercises, Seminar  
1.2 Motivation for the Content  
General remarks  
Products, Components and Materials  

2. Semiconductor Materials and Products

2.1 General Chemistry and Structure
Elemental Semiconductors
Compound Semiconductors
Some Relevant Properties
2.2 Silicon
Silicon and Microelectronics
Other uses of Silicon
2.3 III-V Semiconductors
Basic Properties and Optoelectronics
Other Products
2.4 Other Semiconductors and Products
Germanium and SiC
II-VI Semiconductors
CuInSe2 and other Chalkogenides
Organic Semconductors
2.5 Exotic Semiconductors, Processes and Products
Porous Semiconductors and Product Ideas

3. Thin Films

3.1 General
General Remarks, Definitions
3.2 Mechanical Properties
Geometry and Topology
Stress and Strain
3.3 Nucleation and Growth
In the Beginning
Nucleation and Growth Modes
3.4 Structure, Interfaces and Properties
Epitaxy and misfit dislocations
Film structure
Special properties of thinn films
3.5 Properties Measurements and Characterization
General properties
Important techniques
Structural properties

4. Getting Started

4.1 Input to Si Processing in an Industrial Environment
From Wafer to Product
Producing Semiconductor-Grade Silicon
Making wafers
4.2 Other Semiconductor Crystal Growth Technologies
Single Crystals other than Si
No Need for single crystals
4.3 Infrastructure
Clean room, Particles and Contamination
Testing and Packaging
People and Money
Generation Sequences

5. Integrated Circuits - Process Integration

5.1 Basic Considerations for Process Integration
What is Integration?
Basic Concepts of Integrating Bipolar Transistors
Basic Concepts of Connecting Transistors
Integrated MOS Transistors
Integrated CMOS Technology
5.2 Process Integration
Chips on Wafers
Packaging Si Chips
5.3 Money, Markets and Management
Moore's law and exponential growth

6. Materials and Processes for Silicon Technology

6.1 Si Oxides and LOCOS Process
The Importance of Silicon Dioxide
6.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition
Si epitaxy
Oxide CVD
CVD for Poly-Silicon, Silicon Nitride and Miscellaneous Materials
6.3. Physical Processes for Layer Deposition
Sputter Deposition and Contact Hole Filling
Ion Implantation
Miscellaneous Techniques and Comparison
6.4 Etching Techniques
General remarks and chmical etching
Plasma etching
6.5 Lithography
Basic Lithography Techniques
Resist and Steppers

7. Si MEMS

Products and Developments
What is MEMS?
A Closer Look of a Few Selected Products
Sensors and Actuators
Processes and Specialties
Processes and Materials - General Consideration
Key processes
Process integration

8. Solar Cells

8.1 General Concerns
Basic Solar Cell Topics
Solar Cell Current-Voltage Characteristics and Equivalent Circuit Diagram
8.2 Making Bulk Solar Cells
Production Necessities and Silicon Starting Material
Processes and Process Integration
8.3 Thin Film Solar Cells
Types of Thin Film Solar Cells
Producing thin film SC's

9. Optoelectronics

9.1 General Concerns
Semiconductors and Light
Optoelectronic Devices
9.2 Important Principles and Technologies
Laser diodes