Large Pictures I
|Finds from Varna|
|Map of Turkey with the places of some early settlements|
|Göbekli Tepe Pictures |
Link to text
|The "Turtle Dance" bowl
from Nevali Çori. |
If you have ever watched a romantic America (=prudish) movie, you know what dancing together signifies.
|The layers (stratigraphy)
at Yumuktepe |
Link to text
|Here is a pot
and some shards "in-situ". You get these artifacts out by removing |
the soil flake by flake with something like a tooth pick. This takes a lot of time.
|Pictures from Istanbul Museums. |
Here details from some sarcophagus (probably "Alexander"). Note that the marble was painted.
|Large mural of Attila the Hun, doing a bit
of conquering. |
What's the archetype of a villain to some, is a hero to others.
|The "fertile crescent" or the region often called the "cradle of
It was here where many of the earliest human civilizations developed. However, as we know
now, the fertile crescent was not the only source of civilization and plants and animals were
not domesticated there but in the surrounding nuclear area (included here), where the
original plant species still grow wild.
|This picture is simply amazing,
especially for people like me who "are into crystals". |
The selenite (=gypsum) crystals in the "Cueva de los Cristales"
in Mexico are like nothing else found so far on this planet. They are exceptionally pure single
crystals of CaSO4 · 2H2O and thus
translucent; the biggest one weighs in around 55 tons!
|The famous Lycurgus cup from the late Roman era, |
fourth century AD. This is a masterpiece and not everyday Roman glassware;
it was probably made in Rome.
Left: as seen by looking at it under ordinary outside illumination.
Right: illuminated from the inside.
|Here is another Roman glassware masterpiece. It is shown in the "Römisch-Germanisches Museum" in Cologne, Germany.|
|A pre-Colombian "birdman" made from surface enriched tumbaga.|
|The Gundestrup cauldron is a richly decorated silver vessel, |
thought to date between 200 BC and 300 AD, placing it within the late La Tène period or
early Roman Iron Age.
The cauldron is the largest known example of European Iron Age silver work
(diameter: 69 cm, height: 42 cm). It was found in 1891 in a peat bog near the hamle
of Gundestrup in the Aars parish of Himmerland, Denmark.
It is now housed at the National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen.
|The silver bull in the Metropolitan Museum, |
New Yok City. Proto-Elamite; Susa, Iran. Around 3100 BC - 2850 BC.
Note that the bull, symbolizing power and fertility, started to become a fashionable
God with the advent of metals, replacing to some extent the older female Goddesses.
|Parts of the
Mishmar hoard (3500 BC). Note the different |
colors of the copper objects, pointing to wildly different concentrations of arsenic (As) and
antimony (Sb). The object with the holes was made from hippopotamus ivory; nobody has
the faintest idea what is is good for. The intended us of many copper objects is also unclear.
|More large puictures via this link|
|This sizeable bronze
cauldron stand is displayed in the "Neues Museum", |
Berlin; Germany (that's where you find Nefertiti, too). It is probably from Kition / Cyprus.
Note that it was broken and mended rather clumsily.
|This is a "ritual axe" displayed
in the Antakyia Museum / Turkey. |
It is likely copper or bronze from long ago; I won't wager a date.
The inset shows all the information given by the museum.
meanwhiel I found a rather similar axe in the "Neues Museum", Berlin, |
that is traced to the (in)famous Luristan artifacts, i.e. to at least 1000 BC:
|Ancient South American Ceramics |
Moche culture, Peru, from 100 AD to 800 AD) from the Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim, Germany.
|Ancient South American Pottery (Moche culture, Peru,
from 100 AD to 800 AD) or Recuay style (below) from the National History Museum,
New York City.
It is a bit amazing (and encouraging) that this kind of pottery (plus a clear description
of what is going in) can be seen in a Museum in prudish and hypocritical America.
Probably this is only possible in NYC.
|Here are the descriptions
of the "scarface" sculptures
of the Metropolitan Museum |
in New York City and the Louvre in Paris.
Further below are pictures of all 5 scarfaces known to me in a direct comparison
|Here is a direct comparison of the 5 scarfaces known to me. The similarities of the first foure are obvious; the fifith one is differetn.|
|This is a (restringed) necklace
made from (corroded) beads of native copper and bone pieces. |
The parts where found in the Danube region and belong to the "native copper pocket" that
existed there around 5000 BC, assigned to the "Danube Culure"
10.1.3 Smelting, Melting, Casting and Alloying Copper - The First
Early Metal Technology - 2. Silver and Lead
10.5. Iron and Steel in "Modern" Europe. 10.5.1 From Bloomeries via Stückofen and Catalan Forge to the Blast Furnace
Discussion of the "Cut Sword" Findings
Part 1 Basics about Scythians and Their Akinakai
Critical Museum Guide: Metropolitan Museum, NYC
Critical Museum Guide: Museums in Copenhagen
Critical Museum Guide: Museums in Istanbul, Turkey
Critical Museum Guide: Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim, Germany
Critical Museum Guide: Archaeological Museum in Heraklion (Crete)
Critical Museum Guide: Neues Museum in Berlin, Germany
Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Germany
Museums in Athens and Olympia
Museums in Paris
10.1.1 Discovering Metals and Smelting
11.2.1 Background to Celtic Swords
Early Copper Sites
Sword Places: Luristan
Early Pyrotechnolgy - Pottery
Early Pyrotechnolgy - 2. First Technical Uses
11.1.2 The Bronze Sword
11.1.4 Swords of Major Near East Powers in the 1st Millennium BC
11.1.1 The Early Sword
Scythian Special Large Pictures
Early Iron Making Empires in the Middle East / Mediterranean
The Dirty Mind of Materials Scientists
10.1.5 Copper Final
Sword Places: La Tène
Early Metal Technology - 1. Gold
Smelting Science - 3. Smelter Technology
Some Additional Pictures; chapter 10.1
The Luristan Project - Results from Cut Swords
The Luristan Project - Results from Cut Swords Part 2
The Luristan Project - Large Pictures of Cut Sword
Master of Animals Finials from Luristan
The Luristan Project - Literature Review
The Luristan Project - Results from Cut Swords
Master of Animals
Literature to "Scythian Special"
The Luristan Project - Results
Large Pictures V
Early Iron sites
Rosh Horesha, Shanidar Cave
New Interpretation of Master of Animals Figures
© H. Föll (Iron, Steel and Swords script)