Large Pictures I

Finds from Varna
   
Tomb of Varna
Finds form Varna
Link to text Source: All over the Net
   
Map of Turkey with the places of some early settlements
 
Map of early settlements in Turkey
Link to text
   
Göbekli Tepe Pictures
Link to text
 
Source: Klaus Schmidt: "Göbekli Tepe – the Stone Age Sanctuaries. New results of ongoing excavations with a special focus on sculptures and high reliefs",
Documenta Praehistorica XXXVII (2010), p.239. With kind permission.
     
   
Source
     
   
Source
     
   
Source
     

The "Turtle Dance" bowl from Nevali Çori.
If you have ever watched a romantic America (=prudish) movie, you know what dancing together signifies.
 
Nevali Vori turtle dance
Link to text Source: All over the Net
   

The layers (stratigraphy) at Yumuktepe
Link to text
 
Yumuktepe; stratigraphy large picture
Source: Photoraphed Sept. 2013
   
  Here is a pot and some shards "in-situ". You get these artifacts out by removing
the soil flake by flake with something like a tooth pick. This takes a lot of time.
     
Yumuktepe; pot in-situ
Source: Photographed Sept. 2013
     

Pictures from Istanbul Museums.
Here details from some sarcophagus (probably "Alexander"). Note that the marble was painted.
 
     
   
Source: Archeology Museum; Photographed 2012
     
Large mural of Attila the Hun, doing a bit of conquering.
What's the archetype of a villain to some, is a hero to others.
 
Source: Askeri Museum; Photographed 2012
     

The "fertile crescent" or the region often called the "cradle of civilization".
It was here where many of the earliest human civilizations developed. However, as we know
now, the fertile crescent was not the only source of civilization and plants and animals were
not domesticated there but in the surrounding nuclear area (included here), where the
original plant species still grow wild.
 
Fertile rescent
Source: Wikipedia; author Bjoertvedt (based upon PD map by NormanEinstein).
   

This picture is simply amazing, especially for people like me who "are into crystals".
The selenite (=gypsum) crystals in the "Cueva de los Cristales"
in Mexico are like nothing else found so far on this planet. They are exceptionally pure single
crystals of CaSO4 · 2H2O and thus
translucent; the biggest one weighs in around 55 tons!
 
Seleneite crystals in the Cueva de los Cristales
Link to text Source: NAICA project Web site. The cave is connected to the Naica Mines in Naica, Chihuahua, Mexico.
   

The famous Lycurgus cup from the late Roman era,
fourth century AD. This is a masterpiece and not everyday Roman glassware;
it was probably made in Rome.
Left: as seen by looking at it under ordinary outside illumination.
Right: illuminated from the inside.
 
Lycurgus cup
Link to text Source: British Museum; free image service
   
  Here is another Roman glassware masterpiece. It is shown in the "Römisch-Germanisches Museum" in Cologne, Germany.
     
   
Roman glas
Link to text Source: Photographed in the "Römisch-Germanisches Museum" in Cologne, Germany, 2016

A pre-Colombian "birdman" made from surface enriched tumbaga.
 
Birdman; Tombaga
Source: Smithsonian
   

The Gundestrup cauldron is a richly decorated silver vessel,
thought to date between 200 BC and 300 AD, placing it within the late La Tène period or
early Roman Iron Age.
The cauldron is the largest known example of European Iron Age silver work
(diameter: 69 cm, height: 42 cm). It was found in 1891 in a peat bog near the hamle
of Gundestrup in the Aars parish of Himmerland, Denmark.
It is now housed at the National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen.
 
Gundestrup cauldron detail
Source: Photographed in the National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen 2012.
   

The silver bull in the Metropolitan Museum,
New Yok City. Proto-Elamite; Susa, Iran. Around 3100 BC - 2850 BC.
Note that the bull, symbolizing power and fertility, started to become a fashionable
God with the advent of metals, replacing to some extent the older female Goddesses.
 
Silver bull Proto-Elamite; Susa, Iran; Around 3100 BC-2850 BC
Source: Photographed in the Metropoitan 2013
   

Parts of the Nahal Mishmar hoard (3500 BC). Note the different
colors of the copper objects, pointing to wildly different concentrations of arsenic (As) and
antimony (Sb). The object with the holes was made from hippopotamus ivory; nobody has
the faintest idea what is is good for. The intended us of many copper objects is also unclear.
 
Hahal Mishmare hoard; large picture
Source: Courtesy of the Israel Museum
   
  More large puictures via this link
     

This sizeable bronze cauldron stand is displayed in the "Neues Museum",
Berlin; Germany (that's where you find Nefertiti, too). It is probably from Kition / Cyprus.
Note that it was broken and mended rather clumsily.
 
Bronze cauldron stand
Source: Photographed in the "Neues Museum", Berlin; Germany. 2012
   

This is a "ritual axe" displayed in the Antakyia Museum / Turkey.
It is likely copper or bronze from long ago; I won't wager a date.
The inset shows all the information given by the museum.
 
Bronze axe
Source: Photographed 2013 in the Antakyia Museum / Turkey
     
  However, meanwhiel I found a rather similar axe in the "Neues Museum", Berlin,
that is traced to the (in)famous Luristan artifacts, i.e. to at least 1000 BC:
   
Bronze / iron axe, Luristan; Neues Musum, Berlin
Source: Photographed 2015 in the "Neues Museum", Berlin
   

Ancient South American Ceramics
Moche culture, Peru, from 100 AD to 800 AD) from the Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim, Germany.
 
Ancient South America Pottery
     
   
Ancient South America Pottery
     
   
Ancient South America Pottery
Source: Photographed in the Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim, Germany, 2011.
   

Ancient South American Pottery (Moche culture, Peru,
from 100 AD to 800 AD) or Recuay style (below) from the National History Museum,
New York City.
It is a bit amazing (and encouraging) that this kind of pottery (plus a clear description
of what is going in) can be seen in a Museum in prudish and hypocritical America.
Probably this is only possible in NYC.
 
     
   
Source: Photographed in the National History Museum, New York City. 2013.
   
Here are the descriptions of the "scarface" sculptures of the Metropolitan Museum
in New York City and the Louvre in Paris.
Further below are pictures of all 5 scarfaces known to me in a direct comparison
 
Scarface desciptions Metropolitan and Louvre museeums
Source: Internet
   
  Here is a direct comparison of the 5 scarfaces known to me. The similarities of the first foure are obvious; the fifith one is differetn.
 
   
Scarface Scarface Scarface
Links to texts: 1, 2
     

This is a (restringed) necklace made from (corroded) beads of native copper and bone pieces.
The parts where found in the Danube region and belong to the "native copper pocket" that
existed there around 5000 BC, assigned to the "Danube Culure"
     
Native copper; necklace; Budapest
Source: Photographed 2015 in the National Museum, Budapest, Hungary.
   

With frame With frame as PDF

go to 10.1.3 Smelting, Melting, Casting and Alloying Copper - The First

go to Early Metal Technology - 2. Silver and Lead

go to 10.5. Iron and Steel in "Modern" Europe. 10.5.1 From Bloomeries via Stückofen and Catalan Forge to the Blast Furnace

go to Danube Culture

go to Critical Museum Guide: Metropolitan Museum, NYC

go to Critical Museum Guide: Museums in Copenhagen

go to Critical Museum Guide: Museums in Istanbul, Turkey

go to Critical Museum Guide: Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim, Germany

go to Critical Museum Guide: Archaeological Museum in Heraklion (Crete)

go to Critical Museum Guide: Neues Museum in Berlin, Germany

go to The Ages

go to 10.1.1 Discovering Metals and Smelting

go to 11.1.4 Swords of Major Near East Powers in the 1st Millennium BC

go to 11.2.1 Background to Celtic Swords

go to Early Copper Sites

go to Early Iron sites

go to Sword Places

go to Early Pyrotechnolgy - Pottery

go to Early Pyrotechnolgy - 2. First Technical Uses

go to 11.1.2 The Bronze Sword

go to 11.1.1 The Early Sword

go to Early Iron Making Empires in the Middle East / Mediterranean

go to Sword Places: Luristan

go to Göbekli Tepe

go to The Dirty Mind of Materials Scientists

go to 10.1.2 Copper

go to 10.1.5 Copper Final

go to Early Metal Technology - 1. Gold

go to Smelting Science - 3. Smelter Technology

go to Yumuktepe

go to Some Additional Pictures; chapter 10.1

go to Rosh Horesha, Shanidar Cave

go to Nevali Çori

go to Large Pictures V

go to Sword Places

© H. Föll (Iron, Steel and Swords script)