6.3.4 Summary to: 6.3 Chemical Vapor Deposition

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is simple in principle
Epitaxial Si layer
     
SiCl4 + 2 H2  Þ  Si + 4 HCl
  (1000 oC - 1200 oC)  

Polycrystalline Si layer
     
  60 Pa  
SiH4  Þ  Si + 2 H2
  630oC  

SiO2 layer ("TEOS process)
     
Si(C2H5O)4 Þ   SiO2 + 2H2O + C2H4
  (720 oC)  

Si3N4 layer
     
3 SiH2Cl2 + 4NH3  Þ  Si3N4 + 2HCl + 1,5 H2
  (» 700 oC))  

W layer
     
  104 Pa  
WF6 + H2  Þ  W + (nasty) gases
  470oC  
Find to gases that react ot the desired material at elevated temperatures
Put your wafer(s) into some machine, evacuate, heat to the desired temperature (preferably only the wafers) and admit the gases (and remove undesired reaction products).  
There are many quute different technical ways (all of them expensive) to realize a CVD apparatus  
 
Major CVD process are  
Deposition of epitaxial Si layers - obviously always on (atomically clean) Si substrates. By admitteing some gases carrying doping atoms (e.g. AsH3, AsH3) the layer can be doped in-situ.  
Depositon of poly crystalline Si layers.  
Chemically similar to epitaxial layers, in reality quite different because the CVD reactos can be simpler.  
Poly-Si is needed for many uses: Gate electrode, interconnect, filling of holes, sacrifical layer.  
Its great advantage is its ull compatibility with Si and SiO2; its great disadvantage is its mediocre conductivity (for heavy doping).  
Deposition of Si3N4  
Very important. Always prone to produce mechanical stress (Si3N4 is an unyielding ceramic!).  
W (and Silicides, and ...)  
Not "good" processes, but sometimes unavoidable!  
         
Questionaire
Multiple Choice questions to all of 6.3
     

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© H. Föll (Electronic Materials - Script)