||The Uluburun Shipwreck is a Late
Bronze Age shipwreck dated to the late 14th century BC, discovered close to the
east shore of Uluburun (Grand Cape), in south-western Turkey not far from
today's Bodrum. The shipwreck was discovered in the summer of 1982 by Mehmed
Çakir, a local sponge diver. Eleven consecutive campaigns of three to
four months' duration took place from 1984 to 1994 totaling 22,413 dives,
revealing one of the most spectacular Late Bronze Age assemblages to have
emerged from the Mediterranean Sea.
||The cargo included:
- Copper: 354 ingots of the oxhide (rectangular with handholds
extending from each corner) type and 121 copper bun and oval ingots
- Tin: Approximately one ton of tin; oxhide and bun shaped ingots.
- Amphorae / Jars: At least 149 Canaanite jars (widely found in Greece,
Cyprus, Syria-Palestine, and Egypt). One jar filled with glass beads, many filled with olives, but the majority contained a substance known
as Pistacia (terebinth) resin, an ancient type of turpentine.
- Glass: Approximately 175 glass ingots; cobalt blue turquoise and
lavender in color.
- Miscellaneous: Logs of blackwood from Africa (referred to as
ebony by the Egyptians); Ivory in the form of whole and partial hippopotamus
and elephant tusks; Ostrich eggshells Cypriot pottery; Cypriot oil lamps;
Bronze and copper vessels. Two duck-shaped ivory cosmetics boxes. More than two
dozen sea-shell rings. Beads of amber
(Baltic origin); Agate, Carnelian, Quartz, Gold Faience Glass.
- Jewelry: Canaanite jewelry, 37 gold pieces including: pectorals,
medallions, pendants, beads, a small ring ingot, and an assortment of
fragments. a biconical chalice (largest gold object from wreck). Egyptian
objects of gold, electrum, silver, and steatite (soap stone). A gold scarab
inscribed with the name of Nefertiti.
Bronze female figurine (head, neck, hands, and feet covered in sheet gold).
- Weapons: Arrowheads, spearheads, maces, daggers, lugged shaft-hole
axe. Four bronze swords (Canaanite,
Mycenaean, and Italian(?) types).
- Tools: A large number of tools included sickles, awls, drill bits, a
saw, a pair of tongs, chisels, axes, a ploughshare, whetstones, and adzes