Group 12 / IIB; Titanium Group

The titanium (Ti) family containswhat one might call "High-Tech" metals.
Noting need to be said to titanium, except that it is expensive. Not because it is rare (it is not) but because it is difficult to make.
Metallic zirconium (Zr) is essential in nuclear power plants and its oxide, zirconia, is a key material for modern ceramic applications.
Hafnium oxide not so long ago became a key ingredient in modern microelectronic circuits.
 
Table of Basic Data
Name
(German)
Titan
Titanium
Zirkonium
Zirconium
Hafnium
Hafnium
Atomic number 22 40 73
Atomic mass [u] 47,88 91,224 178,49
Melting point [K] 1933 2125 2423
Melting point [oC] 1660 1852 2150
Melting point [oF] 3020 3366 3902
Boiling point [K] 3533 4650 5673
Density [g/cm3] 4,51 6,51 13,31
Ionization energy [eV] 6,82 6,84 7,0
Electronegativitiy 1,3 1,2 1,2
Atomic radius [pm] 144,8 160 156,4
Ionic radius [pm] 61 87 84
Oxidation numbers 4, 3, 2 4, 3, 2, 1 4, 3, 1
Lattice typ
Transformation temp. [oC]
bcc
885
hcp
bcc
852
hcp
bcc
131
hcp
Lattice constant [Å]
(a or c)
2,95
4,73
3,23
5,15
3,20
5,06
Young's - Modul us [GPa] 106 92,2 138
Therm. expansion coefficient a
[10-6K-1]
10 7,2 (6,0)
 
In case of doubt all numbers are for room temperatures
fcc = face centered cubic; lattice const. = a
bcc = body centered cubic
sc = simple cubic
hp = simple hexagonal
hcp = hexagonal close packed; lattice constants a and c.
op = simple orthorhombic, monoclinic, triclinic
tp = simple tetragonal
dia = diamond structure
r = trigonal or rhomboedral trigonal


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© H. Föll (Iron, Steel and Swords script)