Defects in Crystals

© Prof. Dr. Helmut Föll
(retired)

University of Kiel; Faculty of Engineering

Final Version        Oct 2019
Below is an electron microscope picture of a real crystal lattice defect

Defect
This is a real crystal lattice defect. It is remarkable because:
   
It contains all 5 kinds of one-dimensional defects called dislocations that occur in fcc crystals.
It contains a two-dimensional defect - astacking fault. Two more stacking faults are seen in the background.
It is partially decorated with three-dimensional defects (small precipitates).
It came into being by the agglomeration of zero-dimensional defects: Si interstitials.
It was formed during the processing of Si integrated circuits
It is a killer defect, short-circuiting a transistor.
It can only be identified by transmission electron microscopy, one of the most important methods for the investigation of defects.
 
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