5.3.2 Summary to: 5.3 Cleanrooms, Particles and Contamination

Dirt in any form - as "particles" on the surface of wafer, or as "contamination" inside the wafer is almost always deadly
Blood cells on chip Metal particle on chip
Particles with sized not much smaller than minimum feature sizes (i.e. < 10 nm in 2007) will invariably cover structures and lead to local dysfunction of a transistor or whatever.
Point defects like metal atoms in the Si lattice may precipitate and cause local short circuits etc. from the "inside", killing transistors  
One dysfunctional transistor out of or so is enough to kill a chip!  
Being extremely clean is absolutely mandatory for high Yields Y!    
Use cleanrooms and hyper-clean materials!    
It won't be cheap!    

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© H. Föll (Electronic Materials - Script)