7.2 How Do You Like Your Mix?
7.2.1 Hypo and Hyper
|Deducing Steel Structures|
|After we dealt with the
composition, we must give a quick look to
steel during a slow cooling down.
Let's start from a state point well inside the pure g phase in both cases.
|As soon as both steels hit the all-important 1000 K (727 oC, 1341 oF) transformation temperature, the still present austenite in both cases must change to a ferrite-cementite mixture (striped in the picture below ). This is shown in the figure below.|
|I'm going to discuss that figure in some detail by looking at the various state points in the phase diagram and the (schematic!) structure going with them as shown to the left and right of the phase diagram|
|In both case we start with pure austenite or fcc iron with some dissolved carbon at a temperature somewhat above 1200 0C (2192 0C) We can't image the structure at such a high temperature but we can be sure that it consists of large grains without many defects. This is indicated by the two topmost structure figures.|
|Some time after we started cooling, the state
points hit the line separating the pure austenite region from the two mixed
phases regions a + g for the hypo, and
g + Fe3C for the hyper composition. We
now need to form some a ferrite or some
Fe3C cementite, respectively. How much of these new phases are
needed will be given by the "lever rule" that we will get to know
Whatever, in the beginning we don't need all that much and the precipitation of the new phases will start at good nucleation sites, in particular grain boundary nodes. This is shown in the second structure figure in going downwards.
|As the state points move to lower temperatures within the mixed phase regions, more ferrite or cementite needs to be formed, and the new phases grow. This may happen along the grain boundaries (indicated in the third structure figure on the right), more uniformly (right figure), or in some other way.|
|Eventually we hit the temperature where the
transition to a ferrite and cementite occurs in both
cases (slightly below 1000 K in the figure). We know the composition of the
g phase at this point: it must have exactly the
composition in both cases.
In the hypo case the carbon concentration in the austenite needed to increase to get to this composition. Since carbon-poor ferrite was formed, this could happen. In the hyper case it is the same thing, just with signs reversed. The carbon concentration in the austenite needed to go down, and it could do so because carbon-rich cementite was formed.
We thus find just the proper amount of ferrite or cementite, distributed as shown, before the transition occurs.
|Now we go below the 1000 K transition
temperature. In both cases the final structure must consist of
a ferrite and Fe3C cementite - just the
amounts must be different.
The principle of supreme laziness dictates to leave the primary ferrite or primary cementite as it is. In both cases then only the remaining austenite with the eutectoid composition must change into ferrite and cementite.
It will do that exactly as it did when we had the eutectoid composition from the very beginning. In other words, it will change into pearlite. This is schematically shown in the last structure figures above.
The pearlite then consists of secondary ferrite plus cementite, for the hypo case, and secondary cementite plus ferrite in the hyper case. The primary ferrite and the primary cementite, respectively, remain unchanged
|What we will get then is:
First the hypo case:
|The top picture was taken with a
scanning electron microscope at a (medium) magnification sufficient to resolve
pearlite with a lamella spacing of about 0.5 µm. The bottom picture comes
from a light microscope at low magnification (200x).
The structureless grains are primary ferrite; the "zebra" or black grains are pearlite, with an unresolved "zebra pattern" in the lower picture. Note that not all grain boundaries are easily visible.
|Now to the structure of hypereutectoid steel. Here is a light microscope picture at medium magnification|
|The white stuff completely encasing the grain boundaries is primary cementite. The rest (dark) is pearlite (not resolved) with a few pure cementite inclusions.|
|My use of the word "pearlite" in all of the above cunningly prepared you for an important new idea:|
|Pearlite is not a real phase, of course, since it consists of two "real" phases - but what the heck. For all practical purposes pearlite behaves just like a real phase. One might call it a pseudo phase but one usually doesn't.|
|In the phase diagram, pearlite as a phase would
be a vertical line, just like cementite. If we draw pearlite as a phase into
the the phase diagram below, the decomposition of the high temperature mixed
phases into ferrite and cementite (Fe3C) as shown several times
before, can now be simplified into a decomposition into ferrite and pearlite
for hypoeutectic steels, or into pearlite and cementite (Fe3C) for
hypereutectic steels, respectively.
Just to be on the safe side, here is the figure illustrating this
|If you could follow me that far, you are no ready for parts of a basic Materials Science exam. Try it. It's fun.|
© H. Föll (Iron, Steel and Swords script)