Group 5 / VB; Vanadium Group

Vanadium (V), Niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) are important metals that are not all that rare.
Tantalum has been seen as critical since it was linked to the ongoing war in the Congo, a source of the mineral group known as "coltan". Wrongly, tantalum was and is described as crucial for silicon microchip technology. It is actually important for so-called tantalum (or better tantalum oxide) capacitors, which are indeed crucial for electronics but not relalted to silicon technology.
Vanadium, Niob und Tantal sind wichtige und realtiv häufig vorkommende Elemente; Hahnium ist künstlich erzeugt. Alle Elemente sind technisch wichtig ("Tantalkondensator), insbesondere als Legierungsbestandteile. Nb war (und wahrscheinlich ist) ein Hauptbestandteil von technisch eingesetzten Supraleitern.
Niobium and vanadium are improtant alloy elements for steel. Vanadium is also held responsible for the "water pattern" in wooth steel.
Table of Basic Data
Atomic number 23 41 73
Atomic mass [u ] 50,9415 92,90638 180,9479
Melting point [K] 2163 2741 3269
Melting point [oC] 1890 2468 2996
Melting point [oF] 3434 4474 5425
Boiling point [K] 3653 5200 5698
Density [g/cm3] 6,09 8,58 16,68
Ionization energy [eV] 6,74 6,88 7,89
Electro-negativitiy 1,5 1,2 1,4
Atomic radius [pm] 132,1 142,9 143
Ionic radius [pm] 59 69 64
Oxidation numbers 5 bis -3 5 bis -1 5 bis -1
Lattice typ
Transformation temp. [oC]
Therm. expansion coefficient a
Lattice constant [Å]
(a or c)
3,03 3,30 3,30
Young's - Modul us [GPa] 127 104 175
[10-6K -1] 7,8 7,1 3,6
In case of doubt all numbers are for room temperatures
fcc = face centered cubic; lattice const. = a
bcc = body centered cubic
sc = simple cubic
hp = simple hexagonal
hcp = hexagonal close packed; lattice constants a and c.
op = simple orthorhombic, monoclinic, triclinic
tp = simple tetragonal
dia = diamond structure
r = trigonal or rhomboedral trigonal

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© H. Föll (Iron, Steel and Swords script)