Optoelectronics includes all semiconductor devices which emit light through recombination of electrons and holes. Prime materials are GaAs, GaAlAs, GaP, InSb and generally all III - V semiconductors, but also GaN or SiC. More about optoelectronics can be found in an other Hyperscript.
Again, in making optoelectronic devices, defect engineering is needed. Diffusion plays a major role; the precise atomic mechanisms are not too well understood at present.
Moreover, defects in interfaces (= phase boundaries between different optoelectronic materials) play a major role; they essentially limit or prohibit applications in many cases.
In contrast to Si microelectronics, defects may also play a role in the finished device while it is in operation. Dislocations, not wholly unavoidable in most III - V materials, may start to climb and degrade the function.
Early Lasers diodes, e.g., stopped working after few hours of operation because defects evolved that served as recombination centers impeding radiant recombination.

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go to 3.1.1 Diffusion and Point Defects

go to 8.1.1 Phase Boundaries

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© H. Föll (Defects - Script)